Azure Storage Queues client library for Python¶
Azure Queue storage is a service for storing large numbers of messages that can be accessed from anywhere in the world via authenticated calls using HTTP or HTTPS. A single queue message can be up to 64 KiB in size, and a queue can contain millions of messages, up to the total capacity limit of a storage account.
Common uses of Queue storage include:
Creating a backlog of work to process asynchronously
Passing messages between different parts of a distributed application
Install the package¶
Install the Azure Storage Queues client library for Python with pip:
pip install azure-storage-queue
Create a storage account¶
# Create a new resource group to hold the storage account - # if using an existing resource group, skip this step az group create --name my-resource-group --location westus2 # Create the storage account az storage account create -n my-storage-account-name -g my-resource-group
Create the client¶
The Azure Storage Queues client library for Python allows you to interact with three types of resources: the storage account itself, queues, and messages. Interaction with these resources starts with an instance of a client. To create a client object, you will need the storage account’s queue service endpoint URL and a credential that allows you to access the storage account:
from azure.storage.queue import QueueServiceClient service = QueueServiceClient(account_url="https://<my-storage-account-name>.queue.core.windows.net/", credential=credential)
Looking up the account URL¶
# Get the queue service URL for the storage account az storage account show -n my-storage-account-name -g my-resource-group --query "primaryEndpoints.queue"
Types of credentials¶
credential parameter may be provided in a number of different forms, depending on the type of
authorization you wish to use:
To use a shared access signature (SAS) token, provide the token as a string. If your account URL includes the SAS token, omit the credential parameter. You can generate a SAS token from the Azure Portal under “Shared access signature” or use one of the
generate_sas()functions to create a sas token for the storage account or queue:
from datetime import datetime, timedelta from azure.storage.queue import QueueServiceClient, generate_account_sas, ResourceTypes, AccountSasPermissions sas_token = generate_account_sas( account_name="<storage-account-name>", account_key="<account-access-key>", resource_types=ResourceTypes(service=True), permission=AccountSasPermissions(read=True), expiry=datetime.utcnow() + timedelta(hours=1) ) queue_service_client = QueueServiceClient(account_url="https://<my_account_name>.queue.core.windows.net", credential=sas_token)
To use a storage account shared key (aka account key or access key), provide the key as a string. This can be found in the Azure Portal under the “Access Keys” section or by running the following Azure CLI command:
az storage account keys list -g MyResourceGroup -n MyStorageAccount
Use the key as the credential parameter to authenticate the client:
from azure.storage.queue import QueueServiceClient service = QueueServiceClient(account_url="https://<my_account_name>.queue.core.windows.net", credential="<account_access_key>")
To use an Azure Active Directory (AAD) token credential, provide an instance of the desired credential type obtained from the azure-identity library. For example, DefaultAzureCredential can be used to authenticate the client.
This requires some initial setup:
Register a new AAD application and give permissions to access Azure Storage
Grant access to Azure Queue data with RBAC in the Azure Portal
Set the values of the client ID, tenant ID, and client secret of the AAD application as environment variables: AZURE_TENANT_ID, AZURE_CLIENT_ID, AZURE_CLIENT_SECRET
Use the returned token credential to authenticate the client:
from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential from azure.storage.queue import QueueServiceClient token_credential = DefaultAzureCredential() queue_service_client = QueueServiceClient( account_url="https://<my_account_name>.queue.core.windows.net", credential=token_credential )
Creating the client from a connection string¶
Depending on your use case and authorization method, you may prefer to initialize a client instance with a storage
connection string instead of providing the account URL and credential separately. To do this, pass the storage
connection string to the client’s
from_connection_string class method:
from azure.storage.queue import QueueServiceClient connection_string = "DefaultEndpointsProtocol=https;AccountName=xxxx;AccountKey=xxxx;EndpointSuffix=core.windows.net" service = QueueServiceClient.from_connection_string(conn_str=connection_string)
The connection string to your storage account can be found in the Azure Portal under the “Access Keys” section or by running the following CLI command:
az storage account show-connection-string -g MyResourceGroup -n MyStorageAccount
The following components make up the Azure Queue Service:
The storage account itself
A queue within the storage account, which contains a set of messages
A message within a queue, in any format, of up to 64 KiB
The Azure Storage Queues client library for Python allows you to interact with each of these components through the use of a dedicated client object.
Two different clients are provided to to interact with the various components of the Queue Service:
- QueueServiceClient -
this client represents interaction with the Azure storage account itself, and allows you to acquire preconfigured client instances to access the queues within. It provides operations to retrieve and configure the account properties as well as list, create, and delete queues within the account. To perform operations on a specific queue, retrieve a client using the
- QueueClient -
this client represents interaction with a specific queue (which need not exist yet). It provides operations to create, delete, or configure a queue and includes operations to send, receive, peek, delete, and update messages within it.
Send - Adds a message to the queue and optionally sets a visibility timeout for the message.
Receive - Retrieves a message from the queue and makes it invisible to other consumers.
Peek - Retrieves a message from the front of the queue, without changing the message visibility.
Update - Updates the visibility timeout of a message and/or the message contents.
Delete - Deletes a specified message from the queue.
Clear - Clears all messages from the queue.
The following sections provide several code snippets covering some of the most common Storage Queue tasks, including:
Creating a queue¶
Create a queue in your storage account
from azure.storage.queue import QueueClient queue = QueueClient.from_connection_string(conn_str="<connection_string>", queue_name="my_queue") queue.create_queue()
Use the async client to create a queue
from azure.storage.queue.aio import QueueClient queue = QueueClient.from_connection_string(conn_str="<connection_string>", queue_name="my_queue") await queue.create_queue()
Send messages to your queue
from azure.storage.queue import QueueClient queue = QueueClient.from_connection_string(conn_str="<connection_string>", queue_name="my_queue") queue.send_message("I'm using queues!") queue.send_message("This is my second message")
Send messages asynchronously
import asyncio from azure.storage.queue.aio import QueueClient queue = QueueClient.from_connection_string(conn_str="<connection_string>", queue_name="my_queue") await asyncio.gather( queue.send_message("I'm using queues!"), queue.send_message("This is my second message") )
Receive and process messages from your queue
from azure.storage.queue import QueueClient queue = QueueClient.from_connection_string(conn_str="<connection_string>", queue_name="my_queue") response = queue.receive_messages() for message in response: print(message.content) queue.delete_message(message) # Printed messages from the front of the queue: # >> I'm using queues! # >> This is my second message
Receive and process messages in batches
from azure.storage.queue import QueueClient queue = QueueClient.from_connection_string(conn_str="<connection_string>", queue_name="my_queue") response = queue.receive_messages(messages_per_page=10) for message_batch in response.by_page(): for message in message_batch: print(message.content) queue.delete_message(message)
Receive and process messages asynchronously
from azure.storage.queue.aio import QueueClient queue = QueueClient.from_connection_string(conn_str="<connection_string>", queue_name="my_queue") response = queue.receive_messages() async for message in response: print(message.content) await queue.delete_message(message)
Optional keyword arguments that can be passed in at the client and per-operation level.
Retry Policy configuration¶
Use the following keyword arguments when instantiating a client to configure the retry policy:
retry_total (int): Total number of retries to allow. Takes precedence over other counts. Pass in
retry_total=0if you do not want to retry on requests. Defaults to 10.
retry_connect (int): How many connection-related errors to retry on. Defaults to 3.
retry_read (int): How many times to retry on read errors. Defaults to 3.
retry_status (int): How many times to retry on bad status codes. Defaults to 3.
retry_to_secondary (bool): Whether the request should be retried to secondary, if able. This should only be enabled of RA-GRS accounts are used and potentially stale data can be handled. Defaults to
Other client / per-operation configuration¶
Other optional configuration keyword arguments that can be specified on the client or per-operation.
Client keyword arguments:
connection_timeout (int): Optionally sets the connect and read timeout value, in seconds.
transport (Any): User-provided transport to send the HTTP request.
Per-operation keyword arguments:
raw_response_hook (callable): The given callback uses the response returned from the service.
raw_request_hook (callable): The given callback uses the request before being sent to service.
client_request_id (str): Optional user specified identification of the request.
user_agent (str): Appends the custom value to the user-agent header to be sent with the request.
logging_enable (bool): Enables logging at the DEBUG level. Defaults to False. Can also be passed in at the client level to enable it for all requests.
headers (dict): Pass in custom headers as key, value pairs. E.g.
More sample code¶
Get started with our Queue samples.
Several Storage Queues Python SDK samples are available to you in the SDK’s GitHub repository. These samples provide example code for additional scenarios commonly encountered while working with Storage Queues:
Create a queue
From a connection string
From a shared access key
From a shared access signature token
From Azure Active Directory
Get and set service properties
List queues in a storage account
Create and delete a queue from the service
Get the QueueClient
Set an access policy
Get and set queue metadata
Send and receive messages
Delete specified messages and clear all messages
Peek and update messages
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